gnathologic problems
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diagnostic equipments
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Diagnostic equipments
Piero Silvestrini, M.D., Ph. D., D.S.
Conscious of the statement that:
WHAT HAS BEEN MEASURED IS A FACT.
WHAT HAS NOT BEEN MEASURED IS AN OPINION.
it is important to know which istruments can help diagnose and support us during treatment. There is a multitude of more or less scientific equipment; however, the instruments tested over years of experience and corroborated by plenty of research work are only a few; the most reliable and important of which are listed here below. .
Scoliosometer: an instrument for optical evaluation of posture allowing to monitor gross variations in patient's posture.
Scoliosometer
Stabilometric board: a computer-assisted system used to investigate the type of plantar rest, distribution of the barycentre and its balance system, microvariations in patient's postural behaviour and postural muscle activity.
Stabilometric board and its related analysis ability
Maddox lens and rod: this is a simple optical instrument used to diagnose ocular phoriae
Axiograph: a dental instrument used to assess mandibular joint function and disorders.
Maddox lens
Electronic axiograph
Mechanical axiograph
Kinesiograph: a dental instrument used to assess and monitor any abnormal contraction of head and neck muscles by electromyography, to detect any incoordination in rapid dynamic mandibular movements and, even more important, to determine a therapeutical position of the mandible in muscular harmony
Electromyograph: used for real time assessment of muscle activity at rest and during function, with synchronous monitoring of mandibular movements

Kinesiograph: used to assess mandibular movements with no intraoral interferences

An accurate examination is extremely important to support instrumental testing procedures. Muscle palpation and recruitment, trigger point location, kinesiologic tests are only a few tests
dof the constellation of diagnostic methods, not to mention X-rays, magnetic resonance, etc. A gnathologist's clinical experience is of crucial importance for a correct diagnosis and even more for an adequate treatment, which will yield significant results in patient's cenesthesis only when supported by the co-operation of various specialists as radiologists, physiotherapists, chiropractors, osteopaths, otolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, opticians, optometrists, dental technicians, etc
Muscular palpation
Articular palpation
 

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